full possession of the commerce of the rubies of Pegu, the silks of Bengal the pearls of Calicare, the diamonds of Narsinga, the cinnamon and rubies of Ceylon, the pepper and every spicery of Malabar, and whenever in the eastern islands and shores Nature had lavishes her various riches. Of the more western commerce Ormuz was the great mart; for from thence the eastern commodities were conveyed up the Persian gulp to Bassora on the mouth of the Euphrates, and from thence distributed in — caravans to Armenia, Trebifond, Tartary, Aleppo, Damascus, and the port of Barut on the Mediterranean. Suez on the red Sea was also a most important mart. Here the caravans loaded and proceeded to [Grade Cairo, from whence the Nile conveyed their riches to] Alexandria; at which city and at Barut some Europeans, the Venetians in particular, — loaded their vessels with the riches of the eastern world, which at immense prices they distributed through Europe” While the eastern commerce flowed through these channels, the eastern kingdoms were 

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